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The BCA Toxicology section utilizes immunoassay and mass spectrometry to analyze antemortem and postmortem biological samples for illicit drugs and prescription medications.  Forensic drug testing is a viable investigation tool in cases ranging from DWI to Homicide.

The Toxicology section currently uses the following instrumentation to look for drugs:

  • Enzyme Immunosorbent Assay (EIA) - Blood screening for all confirmable drugs (exception: Bath Salts and Fentanyls which are tested upon request in blood samples)
  • 3200 QTRAP Mass Spectrometer (QTRAP) - Urine screening for all confirmable drugs
  • 4500 QTRAP Mass Spectrometer (QTRAP) - Urine screening for all confirmable drugs (includes THC and Synthetic Cannabinoids)
  • Gas Chromatograph Mass Spectrometer (GC-MS) - Used to confirm drugs in blood and urine
  • Liquid Chromatograph Mass Spectrometer (LC-MS/MS) - Used to confirm drugs in blood and urine
              GC-MS InstrumentLC-MS/MS Instrument      
                                   GC-MS                                                                     LC-MS/MS
Drugs that are identified in blood samples are reported quantitatively (amount) while drugs that are identified in urine are reported qualitatively (present or not detected).
Drugs can be identified in blood or urine unless specifically stated otherwise.
Drugs that the Toxicology section currently looks for (drug scheduling information):
Cannabis Drug Common Names


  • 11-hydroxy-delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (metabolite)
  • 11-nor-9-carboxy-delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (metabolite)
 Marijuana, Pot, Reefer, Weed 
​Dissociative Anesthetic Drug Common Names
Ketamine Ketalar, Special K
Phencyclidine ​PCP, Angel Dust
​Narcotic Analgesics Drug ​Common Names
Codeine Tylenol 3, Fioricet
​Hydrocodone ​Vicodin, Lorcet, Lortab
​Hydromorphone ​Dilaudid
Morphine ​MS Contin, Duramorph, Kadian
6-mono acetylmorphine ​Heroin
​Oxycodone ​Oxycontin, Roxicodone, Percolone
​Oxymorphone ​Opana, Numorphan


  • Norpropoxyphene (metabolite)
​Darvon, Darvocet


Fentanyl (qualitative only)

  •  Norfentanyl (metabolite)

​Dolophine, Methadose, Disckets

Duragesic, Fentora, Matrifen, Haldid, Onsolis, Instanyl, Sublimaze

Depressants ​Drug Common Names
​Carisoprodol Soma, Vanadom
​Meprobamate ​Equanil, Miltown
​Gamma Hydroxybutyrate ​GHB, xyrem, sodium oxybate, Liquid X, Georgia Home Boy
​Zolpidem ​Ambien
​Barbiturates and Phenytoin ​Amobarbital ​Amytal sodium, Tuinal
​Butalbital ​Fioricet
​Pentobarbital ​Nembutal
​Phenobarbital ​Solfoton, Luminal
​Secobarbital ​Seconal sodium
​Phenytoin ​Dilantin
​Benzodiazepines ​Diazepam ​Valium
​Nordiazepam ​Madar, Nordaz (Europe)
​Oxazepam ​Serax
​Temazepam ​Restoril
​Lorazepam ​Ativan


  • a-hydroxy-alprazolam (metabolite)
​Xanax, Benzedine


  • 7-amino-clonazepam (metabolite)
​7-amino-flunitrazepam ​Rohypnol metabolite


  • a-hydroxy-midazolam (metabolite)
​Versed, Hypnovel (Europe)


  • a-hydroxy-triazolam (metabolite)
​Desalkylflurazepam ​Dalmane metabolite
Stimulants Drug ​Common Names


  • benzoylecgonine (metabolite)
  • cocaethylene (metabolite)
​Phenethylamines ​Amphetamine ​Adderall, Dexedrine
​Methamphetamine ​Speed, Desoxyn
​Ephedrine ​Primatene, Quadrinal
​Pseudoephedrine ​Sudafed, Chlor Trimeton
​Methylenedioxymethamphetamine ​MDMA, XTC, Ecstasy, Love Drug
​Methylenedioxyamphetamine ​MDA (parent drug to MDMA)
​Phenylpropanolamine ​PPA, Norephedrine
​Cathinone ​Khat

Designer Drugs​ (Bath Salts)

Fluormethcathinone​ Flephedrone, 4-FMC​
Methylmethcathinone​ Mephedrone, MeowMeow, 4-MMC​
N-benzylpiperazine​ BZP​
3,4-methylenedioxy-N-methylcathinone​ Methylone, M1, MDMC or bk-MDMA​
Alpha-pyrrolidinopentiphenone​ alpha-PVP, gravel​
Methylenedioxypyrovalerone​ MDPV, MDPK, MTV, magic or super coke​
Hallucinogens Drug Common Names
Psilocin (Urine Only)​ Mushrooms, Psilocybin​

Synthetic Cannabinoids (Urine Only)



















  • JWH-018 N-pentanoic acid metabolite
  • JWH-018 N-(5-hydroxypentyl) metabolite


  • JWH-073 6-hydroxyindole metabolite
  • JWH-073 N-butanoic acid metabolite


  • AM2201 N-(4-hydroxypentyl) metabolite


  • XLR11 N-(4-hydroxypentyl) metabolite


  • UR-144 N-(4-hydroxypentyl) metabolite





Common Names









Spice, K2, Synthetic marijuana